Scoring Models: Formalized Decision Making
With the help of scoring models, evaluation and decision-making processes can be formalised and a large number of different criteria can be weighted, evaluated and summarised in an overall score. This allows the comparison of different options (e.g. projects, systems, content types, media, etc.) on a formal level so that a traceable decision can be made. The option with the highest score is preferred.
First of all, all the criteria to be considered in the evaluation must be identified. These criteria can be qualitative or quantitative. Subsequently, the relevant criteria are weighted in order to consider different importance of certain criteria, if necessary. The weights assigned to the individual criteria must add up to 100%. The individual criteria can then be evaluated. The scale on which the evaluation takes place can be determined individually, but the same scale should be used for all criteria (e.g. from 1 to 10).
After the evaluation of the individual criteria, the scores for each option are calculated. For this purpose, the score of each criteria is multiplied by the corresponding weighting. All scores of one option will be summed up to get a total score for these option. This allows you to compare all options across their respective total score. The alternative with the highest total score is accordingly preferred. In addition, knock-out criteria can be defined, if they are fulfilled (yes/no), the respective option should be excluded directly.
Scoring Models in Practice
When choosing the criteria, it is important to work carefully in order to cover all relevant criteria in the evaluation context. A reasonable and meaningful weighting of the criteria is also important. This prevents important criteria from being undervalued and less important criteria from being overvalued. In practice, it often makes sense to proceed along the evaluation criteria and first evaluate all alternatives with regard to one evaluation criteria. In this way, the alternatives can be put in relation to each other and compared in order to achieve a realistic evaluation. A workshop with different experts usually gives good results. However, the moderator should make sure that the workshop group does not lose itself in discussions that become heated.
The main benefit of scoring models is t that they provide a good structure for discussions and a basis for decisions. The weighting also prevents less important factors from being given too much attention.